This is my last reflective post for the ‘How to Teach Online’ MOOC (or TOMOOC to its many friends). You might not know it from my abysmal level of participation but I have valued being part of this cMOOC and have learnt from it – though as I now look back on the course some of my learning has been unexpected and tangential to the expected outcomes.
One very personal time management / motivation type lesson I will take away is that trying to engage with a cMOOC (and I suspect that an xMOOC might have been different in this regard) whilst navigating through potential redundancy / redeployment and starting a new job is not a great idea. Although I read other people’s blog posts, commenting on them soon gave way to writing job applications and preparing for interviews. I think we all came to realise that to get the most out of a cMOOC you need to put a lot in and on this occasion I just wasn’t able to do that – sorry.
My second lesson relates again to my motivation but also to the issue of authenticity which came through strongly in the later stages of the course. I do not really think of myself as someone who ‘teaches online’ in a straightforward sense. I do create online resources from which I hope people learn, but that is not exactly the same thing (my earlier blog post on hybrid teaching discussed this).
At least I took something positive from approaching an authentic learning experience in an inauthentic way – knots of inactivity but lots of reflection on the importance of real, authentic, problem-based, practice-based learning.
I also took on board some important principles for teaching online, though there was no ‘great secret’ there. Good pedagogy is good pedagogy wherever it happens, but you do have to think about that context / environment and plan the teaching and learning to make the most of the environment and tools at your disposal (see image).
I have encountered lots of interesting material (which I have tagged and stored for future reference) in recorded webinars, the set readings and on participants’ blogs and G+ posts.
My PLN has been positively enhanced and I hope to carry on sharing with many of you via social media channels in the future (you can find all my links at about.me/anne_hole).
Overall then, I have learned some valuable lessons about my learning, about teaching online and offline and about cMOOCs.
Many thanks to everyone on the course team and behind the scenes and to everyone who has participated in this community of online learning.
http://sineadyism.edublogs.org/ so much to learn, so much to reflect upon, this groundbreaking work makes me truly consider what is at the heart of education, for people and their authentic selves. Thank you so much for access to such incredible resources and learnings … anyone know when this community wal will close so I can make a note of all the resources ? x with gratitude x
Yes, still catching up, but getting there slowly but surely. I watched a recording of Jan Herrington’s webinar on designing productive tasks in authentic learning environments. As a reminder, the nine elements of authentic learning:
- Provide authentic contexts that reflect the way the knowledge will be used in real life
- Provide authentic tasks and activities
- Provide access to expert performances and the modelling of processes
- Provide multiple roles and perspectives
- Support collaborative construction of knowledge
- Promote reflection to enable abstractions to be formed
- Promote articulation to enable tacit knowledge to be made explicit
- Provide coaching and scaffolding by the teacher at critical times
- Provide for authentic assessment of learning within the tasks.
Applied to the wine marketing students I teach:
Re 1) Authentic contexts: attending and participating in meetings, webinars, fairs and conferences, socializing with colleagues, business partners, customers e.g. at welcome events, dinners, wine tastings; writing emails/text messages/reports/press releases, translating brochures/websites; telephoning; negotiating prices/discounts/deals; in winery selling wine
Re 2) Authentic tasks/wine marketing students: present your winery, wine region, your country’s wine at a fair; conduct a wine tasting; organise a dinner with tasting menu and wine; start-up/ investor/ dragon’s den; present your wine marketing plan/your project at a meeting; present your thesis at a conference; make PowerPoint slides; write emails, business correspondence, translate documents/websites
- Online courses where the task IS the course – I will take another look at these later on.
- The biggest danger: simplification, i.e. guiding/supporting the students too much; don’t be afraid to make them think/challenge them.
- Think about what students can do with the product/task when it’s done – can it be published or shared somewhere, e.g. on YouTube?
- What is an ill-defined problem? Like a real life problem! Give students an opportunity to decide how they’re going to tackle the task.
- Re expert – teacher can be the expert
- A reflective exam can be an authentic task because it forces students to review the whole course: likewise, a portfolio.
Questions to check whether a learning task is authentic:
- What do the students do?
- Who uses the technology? (should be largely in the hand of the students)
- How long does it take?
- Is there collaboration?
- Is there a polished product?
- Is there a showcase or forum for the product?
I’m definitely going to use this grid to help me analyse tasks I’ve designed and to identify which of the 9 elements need reviewing.
Closing remark in response to this question: How do you know authentic, real, meaningful, passion-filled learning is happening before your eyes? “You’ll know it when you see it”
The panel discussion, Using problem-based, real-world activities in online classes, was about online classes taught by the panel members. Memorable moments/comments:
- PBL encourages students to take responsibility for their learning; very engaging; students have to look for information rather than expect to be given it
- The largest barrie rsto using PBL & creating active learning environments? TIME; it’s more work initially; but it really engages students.
- Recommendations if you want to start creating an authentic activity for your online class?
- Start small – rethink one idea from your course
- Work together with another colleague who’s also interested in PBL
- Consult an industry expert
- Just do it! Then revise/improve; don’t be afraid to experiment! (reminds me of Sue’s tip in connection with blogging!)
Closing remark : The future? “Online hybrid is the way to go” (Peter Leong). This caught my attention because this is the way I currently teach my courses: 50% F2F; 50% online. Personally, I feel it combines the best of both worlds. I used to teach only F2F classes but have never taught purely online, so I can only compare F2F with blended/hybrid.
The postings on the community wall: I read most of the blog posts and responded to only to a couple. One which very succinctly summarizes why students don’t participate in online discussions was posted by Debbie.
From my online teaching experience, I can relate to the following: Students
1) Aren’t clear on the expectations: where to post, what post should include (length, content, links, etc.) and/or deadline for posting
2) Feel they have nothing to contribute— are shy, reticent
3) Experience technical difficulties and/or novice user
6) Inhibited by timing of due dates for initial discussion posts, interfere with students’ work schedules
7) Discouraged by discussion questions that appear unrelated to course goals, and/or questions are vague and unfocused
8) Inhibited by certain students that appear to dominate
9) Students’ initial posts and/or responses to classmates are shallow and brief
10) Students’ are just not into it
Fortunately these have never occurred; maybe because my students have actually met each other F2F:
4) Are offended by fellow classmates’ post, or response to his or her post
5) Poor discussion etiquette
What I want to do with all the above input? Here’s a semester task I give my Master’s students in 4th semester which I intend to review using the framework to check how authentic it is.
Knowledge Management News Broadcast
The aim of this activity is to provide you with an opportunity to use/extend the vocabulary and apply the skills you’ve acquired in the first three semesters. It is an on-going project which you will do with three other students. It is part of your participation grade.
Here are the guidelines:
- Your news broadcast should last between 10-15 mins.
- The features should somehow be related to knowledge management.
- Each person in the team should have roughly the same speaking time.
- Roles for your team can be: anchorman/anchorwoman, roving reporter with eye-witness live reports, foreign correspondent etc.
- Give your news station a name and have a poster with your logo behind your news desk.
- Create a jingle for your news broadcast – if possible, produced by the group.
- Have lots of short but snappy features. If contributions are too long, it can get boring.
- Don’t forget to intersperse your news broadcast with 30-second commercial spots.
- Include a VIP interview either live or recorded, but keep who you have chosen as your VIP top secret from the other groups.
- Show evidence of the language and skills you have acquired over the past 2 years in your news broadcast (broad range of vocabulary & word partnerships, grammatical accuracy, presenting/moderating skills, and last but not least, excellent intonation and pronunciation).
The viewers you have in mind for this news broadcast are people interested in knowledge management – they could also be potential KM students. At our next F2F session, your speaking activity will be an editorial meeting with your group.
- Start thinking about what you could include in your group’s news broadcast – make notes/add ideas to your group’s Wallwisher wall (to be created by anchorwoman/man).
- Editorial meeting with your group in F2F 2 to discuss your ideas and put together a plan for who’s going to work on which tasks during the next online phase.
- Review your progress in the next editorial meeting in F2F 4 and decide who will present which part of your news broadcast, how and when. Upload recordings/ videos/ materials to one source e.g. an ePortfolio (top secret!), a Glog (http:/www.glogster.com/)
- Live news broadcast in our last F2F session (June), where each group member has to participate (live and/or recorded). A video of each news broadcast will be made (souvenir!).
Here are some useful phrases – pls incorporate some into your broadcast:
- We have with us in the studio Mr….., who has just ….
- Ms…… – welcome to the studio!
- We welcome to the studio Mr…..
- This is ………… reporting from …… Can you hear me?
- Yes, loud and clear. Go ahead!
- Sorry, Judy, but you are breaking up. We’ll get back to you later.
- And now over to ….
- And now back to the studio…
- This is ………. returning you to the studio.
- This was …… reporting for CNN.
- Our special correspondent John Smith is currently …and we’re connected with John via Skype.
- Reporting live from …
- We’ve just received word that …
- And now it’s time for a commercial break.
- Stay tuned.
- … an exclusive interview with …
- Thank you for joining us.
- Thank you for tuning into …
- So, until tomorrow, same time, same place …good evening!
- So, from all of us at the CNN studio, have a nice evening!
One thing which definitely needs rethinking after listening to all the discussion about rubrics is assessment. Till now, if students produced a news broadcast i.e. actively participated though out the semester and were involved in the final product (live or recorded), they got full marks.
What I did this week:
I adapted an online forum task (wine marketing class) and have now incorporated some triggers for responses (thank you, Rachel!). What do you think?
1) Post a comment on the marketing forum by 4 Nov – state the article title (+link/reference), 3 things you learnt, and one thing you found particularly interesting or surprising. When posting: make sure your subject line accurately reflects the title of the article.
2) Follow up: Read some postings from classmates who read a different article to yours. Then select one (preferably one that has not yet been responded to) and reply to that person by 18 Nov. When responding, try to go beyond a “yes” or “no” or “I agree”, and really engage with the person’s comment, e.g. ask questions to clarify something you’re unsure about, suggest alternatives, extend on an idea, offer a resource link for more information. Useful starters: I was intrigued…; When you mentioned that… it made me wonder….; Have you thought of…; What about…?
I also put together some tips on communicating online and have posted them on the VLE:
TIPS for online communication
- Make sure you check the platform regularly – for news/updates, forums for new postings etc. Twice a month is not enough!
- Check whether there’s anything in the handouts folder that you need to print out in preparation for the next F2F session a few days before your class – see handouts folder & the appropriate sub-folder for that F2F session. Otherwise, make sure you have access to these materials on your tablet/laptop in the F2F session.
- Online task descriptions – see them as a kind of “To Do” list – ticking things as you do them is satisfying! But careful – these descriptions will be updated & linked as the course proceeds, so make sure you’re always working from the current version linked to the course outline.
- Deadlines are set so that tasks are coordinated. It also means that there’s enough time for your tutor to read your postings/assignments and provide timely feedback. Pls stick to them! But if there’s a problem, get in touch with your tutor and ask for an extension.
- Email – only if there’s something very private you’d like to discuss with your tutor; otherwise post on the corresponding forum – then everyone will benefit from your query and the response.
- This is where you apply what you’re learning, where you communicate with your classmates and tutors and basically, where we all stay in touch/help each other during the online phases. The forums are monitored by your tutor, who will remain in the background unless something needs to be clarified. Your postings are a wonderful source of knowledge and are also the basis for valuable tutor feedback on language and task achievement. They are part of your participation grade.
- There are designated forums for the tasks you are assigned, so pls don’t make new forums; use the ones that are there, just make a new thread within those that exist.
- New forums will be created (by tutors) to accompany the online phases when the time comes.
- Post comments in the appropriate one, e.g. help forum – for any queries you have with your SDL, online tasks, language and to share/communicate with the community.
- Read through your class mates’ posts first and try not to duplicate theirs.
- Write a subject line that is a keyword summary of the content of your posting, e.g. IT/can’t upload file; KM article/where?
- Create lengthy texts in Word and then paste into a forum. This will alleviate any potential loss of your writing should there be an IT problem. And it means you can also spell-check/edit your text before posting. This is important because you won’t be able to edit your forum contributions after you publish.
- Linking materials/websites to your forum posting:
- Activate hyperlinks so that readers can access the URL with one click.
- Connect content on the platform by inserting the Factline ID – but always enter the .0 version.
- When responding, try to select classmates’ postings that haven’t already been replied to – it’s motivating for everyone to get a response.
- When responding, try to go beyond a “yes” or “no” or “I agree”. Give advice, ask questions to clarify something you’re unsure about, suggest alternatives, extend on an idea, offer a resource link for more information, or otherwise engage with one another’s comments. Useful starters: I was intrigued…; When you mentioned that… it made me wonder….; Have you thought of…; What about…?
It’s time to implement some of the ideas I’ve been exposed to over the last 6 weeks and working out what these are exactly will be the focus of my end-of-course reflection, which is the next (but not last) thing I’m going to do
For the Computer Science Principles classes last week I had them define Computer Science . The Wordle below is from their definitions after Unit 1. I am planning on having them do this each unit and see how our collective definition shifts as we layer on more material. I think this might make a good writing prompt later int he year.
Other things I've been looking at:
- Been using this site with my Algebra I kids: http://learnscratch.org/ I am hoping to incorporate Scratch and Graphing
- Curious to Try this: http://www.learnstreet.com/teacher_signup as the AP Computer Science Principles classes start on the Internet and HTML
- Rereading As We May Think by Vannevar Bush - this document, from 1945, first suggests hypertext. Beyond the reading level of most of my high school kids, but some good nuggets
- As the computer club keeps working on their 3-D printer I am looking forward to trying Blockify
- Interesting Video recruiting for AP Studio Art: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwyeKseCShY
- And, we just found out our CSTA chapter will get 100 Finches to play with next fall! Cannot wait.
- And lastly made my hotel reservation for SIGCSE 2014. The one thing I learned coaching debate - make the hotel reservation early!
An article on certain MOOCs lack of creativity, by Chris Parr
Perspectives of a participant in two MOOCs – http://www.hybridpedagogy.com/Journal/files/Tales_of_a_MOOC_Dropout.html
- Recorded Presentation (approximately 14 minutes)
- Chickering, A.W., and Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. Number 47, Fall 1991. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
- Drouin, M. & L. R. Vartanian. (2010). Students’ feelings of and desire for sense of community in face-to-face and online courses. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education. Vol 11(3), pp. 147-149.
- Gravells, A (2007) Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector – Level 3 Coursebook. Learning Matters ISBN 1844451173.
- Rovai, A. P. (2007). Facilitating online discussions effectively. Internet & Higher Education, 10(1), 77-88. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ796865) Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2006.10.001.
- Rovai, A. P., & Baker, J. D. (2006). Community and gender in the virtual classroom. In E. M. Trauth (Ed.), Encyclopedia of gender and information technology (pp. 103-108). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference. ISBN: 978-1591408154.
- Rovai, A. P., & Barnum, K. T. (2003). Online course effectiveness: An analysis of student interactions and perceptions of learning. Journal of Distance Education/Revue de l'Éducation à Distance, 18(1), 57-73.
- Shea, P., Li, C. S., & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175–190.
- Swan, K. (2002). Building learning communities in online courses: The importance of interaction. Education, Communication and Information, 2(1), 23–49.
- Tsai, I.-C., Kim, B., Liu, P.-J., Goggins, S. P., Kumalasari, C., & Laffey, J. M. (2008). Building a Model Explaining the Social Nature of Online Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 198–215.
Please feel free to share your feedback on this presentation on the following comment page.
A new MOOC on The Future of Storytelling is about to start on the 25th October 2013, by the Univ. Potsdam – https://iversity.org/courses/the-future-of-storytelling?r=e7a1a
What to Expect
Together with a whole network of media researchers, creators and students we will:
- learn storytelling basics such as antagonist/protagonist relationships, narrative/narrated time, …
- have a look at exciting current media projects
- analyze how they are designed and executed based on aforementioned basics
- and discuss how (and if) new online tools and formats change the way stories are told and perceived.
The 8-chapter course starts on October 25th, 2013 and ends on December 20th, 2013.
A new MOOC on Web tools for schools has started on the 7th October
- Explore different online tools that can be incorporated in the K-12 classroom
- Examine the uses of the online tools for both teacher-led and student driven activities
- Identify good practices for implementing tools in the classroom
I’m still in the process of catching up on what I missed in week 5, but can’t find a recording of the panel discussion any longer. Can anyone point me to it? Thanks!
WHAT? SOME HIGHLIGHTS
Loved this week’s topic and enjoyed the Morrison and panel webinars!
This is something I took from Barrel, PBL: A Foundation for 21st Century Skills. His focus and examples are K-12, but the chapter provides a good overview along with the following practical guidelines for Developing Curricula for PBL:
5. Design a problematic scenario that will spark students’ interest and provide a structure for the entire unit. Incorporate knowledge and understanding of the essential concepts of the unit into the intended outcomes
There was also some great discussion on the community wall, and I particularly enjoyed posts by Jims & Leanne related to the question of why authentic learning isn’t more common. Jims threw out some great ideas: maybe AuthenticLearning Isn’t More Common – Because It’s Too Common? or because we don’t really know what it is; and that perhaps authentic learning should be approached as attitude toward teaching that “makes the most of the instructional environment to simulate real-world conditions.” Leanne added“perhaps it should involve more than attitude. Shouldn’t authentic learning be a movement in teaching where the instructional environment approaches real-world conditions?”
One step at a time, right? I'm feeling inspired to revaluate my practice and to infuse what I’ve learned and ‘relearned’ through this course. As I start writing my final reflection, my goal will be to outline a practical strategy and timeline for doing this. I’m thinking I will use some of the frameworks explored in this MOOC to do an analysis of my courses and identify where the big holes are. From there I'll decide where I want to start. The timing for this couldn’t be more ideal as I am currently on sabbatical and, for once, feel that I will actually have time to adequately work on this before resuming my teaching in the New Year. Thanks everyone for a great learning experience!
Our goal in educational design was to assist learner engagement, encourage positive interactions and foster a learner centric environment using collaborative learning.
Chadi and his Syrian students are truly inspiring considering the obstacles his students and he faced. No matter the barriers they gladly forged ahead embracing new learning strategies. He is a passionate and devoted educator. His persistence and raw courage to overcome adversity is truly incredible.
Chadi's friend once said “It is one of the miracles of life that people living thousands of miles apart, can meet, share interests and build friendships”
Chadi and his family successfully fled Syria to France and he is presently teaching at Université Lille 1.
Join us for the 2013 Reform Symposium E-Conference #RSCON4 October 11th - 13thhttp://www.futureofeducation.com/page/2013-reform-symposium
Wk 3: Create Community: Connect Learners with Each Other
COI Model - appreciated the review and the discussion helped to embed it more in my mind and also gave me some good examples for each dimension
4 Levels of Interaction
-> Teacher; -> Learners; -> Content; -> Learning Environment interface
Interactive Discussions - lots of food for thought, great ideas, and exemplars
Wk 4: Create a Natural Critical Learning Environment
Bain – What Makes Teachers Great
Hook -> intriguing question or problem
Buy In -> students understand the significance
Self-Directed -> students solve problem or question
Get their attention and keep it
Start with students
Be available out of class
Interdisciplinary approach - real world
Sinek TED Talk
- Not about the WHAT but WHY [beliefs]
- Those who lead inspire and encourage others to follow for their own beliefs
Elder: Taking Ownership Through Thinking
- Content = Thinking
- Help students to understand a discipline using the thinking structures within that discipline
Wilson (2002) 4 Critical Questioning Strategies
- Convergent: Blooms lower levels; CFU
- Divergent: Blooms upper; discussion forums
- Evaluative: Blooms upper cognitive & affective
- Socratic: best strategy for promoting critical thinking
Q1. If we know all of these things why aren't we all amazing teachers? This is similar to the point that bmcpherson makes “However, if becoming an outstanding teacher merely entails implementing recommended best practices, then there would be many more outstanding teachers than there currently are. Clearly, there are good and bad (or more and less effective) ways to implement these practices. There seem to be things that cannot simply be borrowed, copied, or plugged into courses. I am wondering what are these less tangible attributes that are the essential characteristics of the best teachers.” in his post
This got me thinking about what I call, in my comment to his post, the recipe approach. We are all looking for those elements that will make us great teachers – that’s why we’re taking this MOOC right? – but what I am starting to think is: a) having all the right ingredients doesn’t necessarily result in the ability to make an outstanding cake – there is something that each individual instructor brings to a course that is unique; and b) do we really all want to be making the same cake anyway? I think that’s why the Sinek video on focusing on the WHY – our beliefs and passions – and not on the WHAT – outcomes, something our educational system seems to thrive on – really resonated with me. Yes we need to be student-centric, but we also need to start with ourselves, our passions and our beliefs. Maybe that's the difference?
Q2. Of all of the things we have talked about in this course, how much is really only applicable to online teaching? As I’ve been reading the materials I find I’m constantly saying to myself, “Well that's just good teaching!” Clearly there are some things – like developing technology skills – that are paramount for successful online teaching. But I keep asking this question, "What really is the difference between good F2F and OL teaching?"
I'm at the point where I need to sort through the reams of notes, synthesize, and process to make sense of it all. I’m feeling like it’s time to transition out of the random sampling I've been doing and into pulling things together into some sort of coherent framework. That sounds quite traditional and academic, but that's the only way I know how to sense out of the chaos - make connections, look for some patterns [so that, as in the image, I can distinguish what's camouflaged]. And then knowing me, I'll probably try to turn that into some sort of visual summary.
Peter Leong and Lani Uyeno provided insight into how they have integrated problem-based learning into their online courses. Lani's course Eng. 211 Autobiographical Writing and Peter's course 668 Quantitative Research (graduate level).
Lani's course: The student's work on a published journal and thus are more interested as they see an effect of their work on others.
Peter's course: Fictitious consulting company doing educational research
Response to Tony Bate's point-'bringing in the world to your teaching'
Lani: writing memos, letters in response to clients requests; the fact that they are online: they spend more time in revising and editing their work
Peter: the course material (quantitative research/statistical research) is dry for most students so the fact that they are using research methods to help their client oppose legislation & from their analysis of the data, bring forward conclusions helps bring the material alive for the student
Authentic activities in PBL How do they differ from traditional learning activities?
Lani: publication means that revision and editing of work is more important than it is in person
Peter: in f2f small problems were not contextualized so difficult for the student to learn how to apply; online the students are better able to apply the material
Online students are more responsible: the material is there but don't pay attention to it; the team leader more responsible and ensures re-reading and understanding what is there
PBL effect on student learning & motivation
Lani: have to become more motivated; grow in communication skills; seen students who are quiet given a voice online; students are more professional in their interactions; when Lani gives her thoughts on their deliverables - do revisions before handing in
Memoirs content: teams Lani posts which team is critiquing which team; uses rubrics
Drafts - Lani prepares a power point slide what works; what needs more work; whole team usually shows up
Peter: Working with graduate students you still see a shift from them expecting you to give them all the material to them learning that they need to look for the information
1) Formulate & operationalize research questions
2) Select research design & statistical analysis method
3) Perform the statistical analysis and draw conclusions
Rubrics for each task. Peer evaluation at the end of the project (done separately by each team member rate their peers).
synchronous meeting once a week
Using technology to support active learning among & between students
Lani: BB Collaborate - good interaction with students and they can ask any questions
Peter: endorsed Lani's thoughts on BB Collaborate; added blogs to reflect on their experiences; 2nd Life; interesting to read blogs to see where they start and where they end - they are in charge of their own learning
other technology: brainstorming on white board; separate groups; polling function; chat function
Largest Barrier to PBL & Active Learning - TIME
Lani: commit the time to shift from lecture to PBL; once it is done the material is impressive to student because of the time and thought you have put into the course; students more involved in their learning
Peter: Time to convert to PBL - once it is done what was once dry engages students online - they can see how it works in real life
Recommendations (how to start)
Lani: start small; rethink one idea or concept from course; work with a colleague as the back and forth really helps
Peter: authentic - talk to industry expert; make sure you have a real world/work problem - Just Do It! - don't wait for the perfect idea
Example of a first baby step?
concept - context for presenting it
invite guest speaker on subject matter
Resistance from students:
*** so hard - used to be on the receiving end - no research themselves
- after first deliverable - less resistance as other students are there to support
- gives students a sense of the whole - where you are going as all the material is online - they can go and revisit or go ahead
- students take it upon themselves to tell others to revisit the material
Overall the benefits of PBL are too great not to be using!
The following 4:20 video of Peter’s hybrid graduate course, quantitative research in ed tech, was added to YouTube by ikaikamiles on 2/16/13.
I watched the TOMOOC video of this webinar this afternoon. Both presentations provided excellent examples of authentic course designs for blended classrooms. The panel format was dynamic, with Leanne asking questions and panelists responding with quick replies. The Q&A segment following the panel was, as usual, very good, with some very tough questions re online features of their courses.
In this quick review, I’ve chosen to highlight Peter’s course instead of Lani’s only because I began my web search with him and quickly found a brief 4:20 YouTube video and a website clearly describing his course. (See above.) I haven’t had a chance to research Lani’s course, and I apologize for this especially since Lani is an old friend and former department colleague. She was at Kapiolani CC many years before transferring to Leeward.
The overriding impression that I got from both panelists is that successful authentic courses require planning, planning, planning, tweaking, tweaking, tweaking. But it seems to be a labor of love, and the quality of these courses testify to that. Their excitement about what they’re doing is infectious.
For the students, the learning experience seems very realistic and engaging — but the key is that this realism and interaction takes a lot of planning. Still, watching the webinar, I got the impression that this is all doable. Peter and Lani take the mystery and fear out of the process and expose the process for what it is: an imaginative and exciting student-centered alternative to traditional teacher-centered approaches that’s fun for both teachers and students.
The learning outcomes, I’m sure, must be outstanding, with students getting a holistic, hands-on, personally relevant view of the skills and concepts they’re not only studying but constructing.
The issue of adapting these approaches to completely online courses was beyond the scope of this panel so I won’t go into it — except to say that I believe it can be done very effectively. However, that’s another story. As blended approaches, these two are outstanding. Once again, thanks, Lani and Peter, and the TOMOOC team.
Update from Leanne (10/10/13): Lani developed [two scenarios] for English Composition: Ka Hui Ho’okolokolo (https://sites.google.com/a/hawaii.edu/ka-hui-ho-okolokolo/home) and Halia (https://sites.google.com/site/haliamemory/)…. If you are interested in other PBL scenarios, a library of them are available at: http://learnpbl.com/scenario-based-tasks/
Thank you, Jim, for your thought provoking response to the question of “Why isn’t authentic learning more common?” with your post “Authentic Learning Isn’t More Common – Because It’s Too Common?” (10/10/13).
I agree with your conclusion that people (and we as educators) don’t know what “authentic learning” really is. We can come up with a common definition, we have models (some really great ones were shared this week) which are a sliding scale/continuum of elements, but when we come down to it “authentic learning” means different things to different people. Something authentic to me, may not be for you.
You stated, “Perhaps a better way to approach authentic learning is to say that it’s an attitude toward teaching that makes the most of the instructional environment to simulate real-world conditions.” and I agree, but would like to add that perhaps it should involve more than attitude. Shouldn’t authentic learning be a movement in teaching where the instructional environment approaches real-world conditions? Just a thought…
Leanne Riseley, in “Moving Toward Authentic Learning” (10/7/13), raises a question asked by Marilyn Lombardi in “Authentic Learning for the 21st Century: An Overview” (Educause, May 2007): “Why isn’t authentic learning more common?”
This is a good question because the approach has been around for a while — plenty of time to go viral. But it hasn’t, and perhaps its origins provide a clue. It began in the medical field and seems to thrive in similar highly technical settings. One of my writing courses is technical communications, and for this course I’ve naturally incorporated authentic features. In courses with less defined real-world counterparts, such as English and history, the incorporation may be tougher.
I don’t have a quick answer or even a good one, but I’ll take a shot and share a relatively long, twisting, and awkward one that may or may not be in the ballpark.
The theoretical underpinning for authentic learning is transfer. Schools are training grounds, and the assumption is that what students learn in classrooms will transfer to the real world. The obstacle to transfer is the gap between school and reality. Thus, the instructional issue is how to close the gap, and the assumption here is: the smaller the gap, the better the transfer.
From this perspective, on-the-job training, or apprenticeship, offers the smallest gap. In between lies a continuum of arrangements that are progressively removed from the real world. Thus, at the other end is a classroom in a school that has little in common with the authentic environment.
The question for schools, then, is how to close the gap — short of moving into apprenticeships. (It could be argued that apprenticeships aren’t fully authentic.) Authentic learning is the compromise. However, “authentic” in this context is a misnomer. This approach is actually a semi-simulation (or semi-real) or hybrid, part pretend and part real.
The real-to-school continuum leaves a lot of wiggle room in between, which translates to difficulty in assigning “authentic” to any strategy. In a sense, nearly all approaches are authentic to some extent. It’s similar to attempts to define “blended” learning. Since it’s difficult to imagine any course that’s not somehow connected to the internet, it’s probably safe to say that if a course isn’t fully online, then it’s blended.
Thus, an activity is authentic if students address problems or are exposed to readings or videos by or featuring practitioners in the field. We could argue that it’s not authentic because it’s missing real-world conditions, feedback, or collaboration, but the counter could be simulations, rubrics developed by experts in the field, and input from classmates in the role of practitioners.
If we question the absence of a finished product that’s shared with the public, we might hear that presentations were recorded and shared on YouTube or final reports were published in one of the school’s journals.
The point is that when a term such as “authentic” loses its capacity to discriminate, when it becomes too inclusive, it becomes less useful in the sense that it can be made to apply to almost any strategy.
Thus, to answer the question, I’d say “authentic learning” isn’t more common because people don’t know what it really means. On the one hand, nearly all learning is authentic; on the other, all learning, short of full engagement in the field, is not authentic. All that gray stuff, that terra incognita, in between is the problem.
Perhaps a better way to approach authentic learning is to say that it’s an attitude toward teaching that makes the most of the instructional environment to simulate real-world conditions. In this view, “instructional environment” is variable and comprises a wide range of factors.
OK, that’s my shot. I’d like to hear yours.
The main point of all the discussions was to try to build relationships between the instructor and students and between students as well. It is not enough to just get students to enroll in classes, it is important to help them finish their programs. While the online environment is ideal for some students, there are drawbacks. One big issue is that the retention rate of students in an online environment is lower than that of face to face. There could be many reasons. They may lose interest or the learning pace that instructors might set might be too difficult. In order to try and maintain the interests of the students, Professor John Thompson of Global Learning Institute Inc., suggested many ways to engage online students, the most important of these is to keep the lines of communication open with your students. He makes some suggestions that are not difficult to implement, but can mean a world of difference in building rapport. One suggestion was to use audiovisual tools. Dr. Kaulbach of Sarasota University also suggested the use of video to communicate with students. The two agree that the best way to promote learning and engage students is to foster a rapport with students, establish best times for student-teacher communication, provide guidance and examples of work to encourage student productivity, and most of all to communicate, communicate, communicate.
What type of student enrolls in an online class? Most are older adults, employed, and busy. I fit into that category. They may register for online instruction because the hours are more flexible than face to face instruction. I think that more and more students will be taking online courses and these students will be undergraduates just out of high school. Maybe they will take the courses because they like the flexibility in hours, but I also think they will take online courses because they are used to communicating in a digital world and might prefer learning that way.
Greg and TOMOOC staff, mahalo for “Examples of Authentic Online Learning Activities” (10/9/13). As a writing teacher, I naturally gravitated to “Composition I” and “Introduction to Creative Writing.” I reviewed the projects with the template that I describe in “Remixing Reeves, Herrington, and Oliver’s 10-Point Criteria for Authentic Activities” (10/8/13).
A. Roles: Social forecasting team (4 members) for the state of Hawaii.
B. Problem: Publish a paper in an anthology, Hawaii 2050. Narrow the topic.
A. Open: Conduct a survey.
B. Networking: Consult with two experts in the field.
C. Sustained: semester long
III. Implementation (tangible outcome)
Multimedia presentation to the “public.”
Submission of research paper.
Publication of all the groups’ papers and presentations in an anthology.
Phase 3 and 5 in the report.
Consult with instructor in phases 1-4.
Dear Diary entries in phases 1, 2, 4, and 5.
A. Roles: Small group of “emerging” poets.
B. Problem: Publish a poem in Ka Mana’o, LCC’s fine-arts magazine.
A. Open: “Consult an expert or editor as to whether piece is ‘ready’ for the world”; “Consult ‘experts’ to select model works to read”; “Search for, and explore, unfamiliar publications and/or performances/readings.”
B. Networking: “Group action plan to help each other”; see IIA above.
C. Sustained: 3 weeks
III. Implementation (tangible outcome)
Week 2 group meeting with coach (“in-person or virtual”).
Peer feedback to/from classmates.
“Individual, small-group, and full-class reflections.”
Submit poem to Ka Mana’o.
I’m impressed with the creativity in both designs, which place critical real-world decisions in the hands of students and provide procedures for real-world input and feedback to aid in those decisions. I’m especially impressed with the outcomes, publishing to a real-world audience.
This is a far cry from students working in isolation, receiving input from teacher-provided resources and feedback from their teacher only, and producing outcomes that are read and evaluated, again, by the teacher alone.
The choice is a no-brainer.
After last night’s webinar I’ve been doing a lot of thinking about authentic learning. I have an assignment that I’ve used in F2F classes for both speech and composition that I think I could adapt to the online learning environment which would provide an authentic learning experience. Additionally I think it will implement some of the other tools we’ve learned in this MOOC such as implementing collaborative work and enhancing critical thinking. I’m anxious to hear from about what you think of this assignment. The assignment is used as I teach persuasive speaking/writing and was developed as a way to get students to not only use the skills I’d been teaching but to also make them think about the world around them and how they could be more involved in that world. It is designed in this way:
First I go through newspapers and find a wide selection of editorial columns that address issues on a variety of levels from international to national to local issues. Next I split the class into groups and have each group select an article of interest to them (collaboration). Each member of the group is to read the article. For the next step, I set up discussion boards for each group where they can discuss the article. I provide them with some guidelines as to what to look for and things they should be able to identify such as what the argument is, what type of reasoning is used, what persuasion techniques are used and what if any faulty reasoning has occurred in the article (critical thinking about the article and the topic both). Also, they are asked to, as part of their group work, locate information defending or opposing what is said in the article (using technology). After having given them time to thoroughly discuss the article, usually a week or so, the group will be asked to create a presentation about the article they read and what their group discovered when analyzing the article (using technology/polished product #1). They present this via a link to a discussion board set up for this assignment (technology). Finally to add an individual element to the assignment as well, I ask them to write a letter to the editor of the paper the document was taken from either in support of the article or in opposition to it. In their letter they are to use valid reasoning, valid resources to support their belief (teaching researching skills), additional persuasive techniques, and avoid faults in their reasoning (polished product #2). They are to post this letter along with a link to their article in the class blog which I have set up (forum for project). Students also have the option of submitting their letter to the editor of the respective paper for possible publication (showcase for project). The goal is to have this entire project completed within two weeks time.
Because students have to think critically about the topic being discussed to thoroughly understand what is being written about I feel like this project encourages them to become more involved in the world around them, at least for the topic at hand.
From my understanding this project would serve well on a variety of levels. It would encourage critical thinking on multiple levels, it encourages writing for transfer in that they are encouraged to take the skills they’ve learned an apply them to a real-world situation (responding to the article), and it provides them with an authentic experience.
I’m anxious to hear if others feel like I’m on track with my thinking. I’d like to hear what you think about this assignment — do you think it’s good, bad, or just plain ugly? What changes would you recommend I’d make?
Also I’d like to hear what kind of assignment you use to fulfill some or all of these goals. I’ve seen lots and lots of ideas during this MOOC but I haven’t seen a whole lot of examples of specific examples. BTW if you like my idea, please feel free to use it — in my opinion, sharing is how we get some of our best assignment ideas.
I decided to remix the Reeves, Herrington, and Oliver criteria1 to better represent the phases and subphases in the overall process of developing authentic learning activities. This shrinks the list from ten to seven items, with the “extras” embedded in other items. The result, I think, is a more familiar and systematic problem-solving process.
A. Simulation of real world roles: “Authentic activities have real-world relevance.”
B. Problem definition: “Authentic activities are ill-defined, requiring students to define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity.”
A. Open approach: Authentic activities (1) “provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources”; (2) “can be integrated and applied across different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes”; (3) “allow competing solutions and diversity of outcome.”
B. Networking: “Authentic activities provide the opportunity to collaborate.”
C. Sustained effort: “Authentic activities comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time.”
A. Standalone outcome: “Authentic activities create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else.”
A. Review: Authentic activities (1) “provide the opportunity to reflect” and (2) “are seamlessly integrated with assessment.”
The wild card that runs through this entire process and makes it manageable for teachers in a wide range of instructional environments is scalability. The process has to be viewed as downwardly scalable, based on factors such as grade level, subject matter or field of study, ability/achievement levels, teacher-student ratio, instructional resources, time frame, etc.
Two other characteristics of this process is that the phases aren’t discrete and the progression is recursive rather than linear. The phases overlap in many interesting and dynamic ways, and students will return to and revise earlier phases based on formative evaluations.
Online technology can be an integral part of all phases, but its greatest advantage is probably in IIB, networking. With the web, opportunities for collaboration are expanded beyond space and time limitations, and this advantage can be applied to all four phases.
1 Thomas C. Reeves, Jan Herrington, and Ron Oliver, “Authentic Activities and Online Learning,” HERDSA 2002 conference.
As I think about my experiences in the online education world, as I have been teaching online for seven years and in the past four years I have taken a few online courses, I cannot say I have ever been as engaged as I have been as in this MOOC. So what is the difference?
I find the newsletter very impressive and it comes to me (I don't have to go looking for the website or the material - oh who knew it would keep me on track.). There are synchronous sessions - which are linked to a world clock that actually works (well I did have one time wrong) its just been too bad that I couldn't make all the sessions since I find them rewarding - people actually talking about this online world and even more astonishing is that they are enthused and excited to be involved (most of the people I engage with see it as a necessary evil). The links to the reference material - yes I am a person who actually wants to read the original just to be sure I understood it all.
This week I went through the course material - which really I have done every week since I find the compilation of materials a definite resource. I participated in Debbie Morrison's Blackboard discussion and I basically listened to Linda Elder lecture on critical thinking (I had hoped to listen to her presentation again this week thinking I must have missed something.) I watched the weekly wrap-up and wished I could ask a few questions. I realize that there was a minimum of people present at Greg's session but I could really have used the examples. I am always asking my students to provide examples as in my mind (and I think in theirs) it helps to clarify my thinking am I getting the message that they are sending. Personally I wish Greg had put in a number of examples for each of the points since as I am watching the recording I have no way of knowing if I am really getting the point.
Synchronous online is more appealing and engaging to asynchronous online in my experience and this course also underscores it for me. If I had participated in the roundup I would have been able to ask my questions. If this course was in a LMS I would have posted my questions in the forum under the discussion and hoped that I would get a response sometime down the road. My other thought is that with synchronous session you are more likely to be able to capture some of the interests of your students - I am not sure how that actually translates in the asynchronous world that I inhabit.
This brings me to another realization is that the synchronous part of this course is what pushes me forward to do the readings and search through my mind for the other material that I have sifted through.
Questions. I was more than happy to see the material on questions as I spend part of last year trying to get myself asking solid questions or at least questions that were divergent. The book Thinking through quality questioning, although written for a different audience provides ample material to give you some pause to think - what kind of questions am I asking. Lots more work to do in this area as people need to feel that they can respond. Perhaps we are so socialized to answer convergent questions that anything else makes us leary? Going back to the weekly round-up Greg put up a slide on "Questioning Behavior . . . " I didn't get the information down (another I have to go back) but I did get the nugget are you giving verbal rewards (Great question!). I found John Hattie's Visible Learning for Teacher's last year and although not for this audience he does a good job on how to give feedback - The article that actually gave me the nuggets to go forward was Educational Leadership: Feedback for Learning: Seven Keys to Effective Feedback
All week I kept thinking I am missing something major here - but what is it? I have been ruminating on how to figure out what is a realistic workload for instructors taking a blended course. I would definitely appreciate a discussion on workload - we have talked about the discussion board however I might have missed what is the standard or is there a standard - one discussion posting per week or 1 per two weeks or is there any guidance. Lots more questions hopefully they are of a higher order ;-).
I enjoyed reading Marilyn Lombardi’s “Authentic Learning for the 21st Century: An Overview”. I thought it was very well written and agreed with the points she made in the article. One question she raised toward the end of the article is “Why isn’t authentic learning more common?” She goes on to state “The reliance on traditional instruction is not simply a choice made by individual faculty – students often prefer it”. If students prefer traditional instruction, what are key motivators that would encourage faculty to move toward authentic learning? How do we foster an environment where authentic learning is the norm?
Mshin, in “How to keep their attention during a video or voiceover?” (10/7/13), says:
I am having trouble paying attention and staying interested when having to watch the [TOMOOC] webinars. And if I, who am very invested to pay attention, am having trouble keeping interest and not being distracted, then I imagine this is a problem for the general student populace.
Mshin, trying to pinpoint the problem, says, “It is too slow for me most of the time,” and nails it. Sitting and listening for an hour as a lecturer moves from point A to point B is mindnumbing. One fact is that we, as educators, are excellent readers. And unless we’re reading a novel, we seldom ever begin at the beginning and slog through a book, one word at a time, from cover to cover. Even before we go to the contents, we go to the jacket blurbs, intro, or conclusion to see what’s new or “information.” We then go to the contents to find relevant sections and scan them for key paragraphs then sentences. In quick order, we get to the gist, the specks of gold hidden in the rubble of other material.
From there, if we feel it’s necessary, we backtrack to identify key background info. Again, we don’t read but we scan, knowing intuitively where and what the keys are. And we do this quickly, in 5 to 10 minutes, regardless of the size of the book. We use a similar process with articles. Given the transcript of a webinar presentation, we’d work the same way. In a few minutes we’d know what, if anything, is new and worth pursuing, and in a few more minutes we’d be able to pinpoint the key background info. If we’re watching a video recording instead, this process takes a lot longer. If we’re at the live presentation, we’re stuck in the presenter’s mindnumbing pace.
Thus, ironically, the simplest medium, text, is a lot more efficient and effective than a live or recorded presentation — at least for those with efficient and effective reading skills. (And maybe there’s the rub.)
Mshin says, “While someone is talking about a part that is on a totally different subject matter for me it is so tempting to toggle over to check my email.” Yes. With TV, we all turn off during commercials and do other things, or during portions where the content doesn’t interest us, we tune out and tune in to other things around us. To do otherwise would be insane.
If we were in a one-on-one conversation with the presenter, we’d begin with a question that matters to us re the general topic of the talk. If the response is useful, we ask more questions. If the response is a rehash of what we already know, we say thank you and leave. We don’t hang around for the hour-long presentation.
Back to Mshin’s question: “How to keep their attention during a video or voiceover?” The simple answer is “We don’t.” And the implication is that this isn’t the right question. Perhaps we ought to be asking, “How do we give students the information they need in a way that isn’t boring?”
If we insist on lectures, perhaps, as Mshin says, fear — fear of being caught dozing or checking email might keep them awake. Or jokes. Or moving randomly around the room or screen. Eye contact. Wild gestures. Costumes? Powerpoint! Or how about something simple like a digital text transcript — or even better, perhaps a clear, one-paragraph post-it-size summary of the gist of the talk with hyperlinks to relevant info.
As educators, we need to pick our battles. Do we use up all our students’ energy with hours of mindnumbing information consumption before they ever get to the front lines or do we simply toss them into the thick of the battle and say “Fight!”
The “jump in first and figure things out later” approach may sound crazy, but it won’t be boring. Students aren’t stupid. Heck, we were all once students. (And some of us still are.) They’ll quickly search for or devise weapons to win. And they’ll value anyone who can help. Since they’re all in “real” (OK, “authentic”) danger, it’s in everyone’s interest to work together and find the best possible weapons to, first, survive, then win.
The question, ultimately, may be, “How can we make learning so authentic that adrenaline takes over and learning becomes indistinguishable from living?”
So, I can’t say for sure how good a teacher I am (only my students know, I guess), but I am (have been in the past?) a very good student. I’ve always been a very attentive and diligent student. With that being said, I am having trouble paying attention and staying interested when having to watch the webinars. And if I, who am very invested to pay attention, am having trouble keeping interest and not being distracted, then I imagine this is a problem for the general student populace.
My problems with staying on task during webinars or video lectures or voice overs in presentations:
1) The tone. They speak clearly, they enunciate, they have good pace…and yet it all feels kind of droning and monotonous. It is too slow for me most of the time. I know they are trying to speak to let it “sink in” but it sure doesn’t sound like how “people talk” and there is something alien about the voice most people use in webinars.
2) Lack of physical interaction. I rely on the teacher moving, pointing at me, walking near me, holding up a paper, shaking their fist to emphasize a point, running to the board to write a good response down, etc. MOVEMENT seems to help a lot of me. It is a constant reminder to pay attention and in webinars (and the like) it is usually a close up of a face with someone sitting and there is very little movement.
3) My computer. In class, it is just me and a notepad and my book. I never take a laptop. If I ever did, I assume I would just type notes in it because of upcoming point #4. However, for these webinars, I have to watch them on my tempting, tempting computer. Oh, while someone is talking about a part that is on a totally different subject matter for me it is so tempting to toggle over to check my email. And now I am distracted.
4) Can’t get “busted.” In class, I don’t want to be disrespectful or get busted. Thus, I pay rapt attention and participate. The pressure is on because eyes are on…me! Alone in my office it is too easy to start grading a paper while “watching” a webinar.
So, I’ve pinpointed what is distracting (or not engaging) me, but, with the exception of #1 and maybe #2 I am not sure how to solve this for students….
Yes, sure you will eventually “get busted” because your grade is bad because you didn’t pay attention or because you kept checking out other things on the computer, but that requires forethought and long term planning, which–if every student had–are jobs would be so easy they would be rendered nearly obsolete…..
“Were all instructors to realize that the quality of mental process, not the production of correct answers, is the measure of educative growth something hardly less than a revolution in teaching would be worked.”
― John Dewey, Democracy and Education
Today I was taking an online quiz in a MOOC (a massive open online course) and although I knew the correct responses, the quiz was marking my responses wrong. After reviewing all the related lectures and the corresponding readings for a second time, I was really puzzled. I was now 100% confident that the responses were correct.
My next step was to review the Discussion Forums to see if anyone had a similar problem. Yes, I discovered a few students expressing their angst over the inaccurate grading of the quiz. You see, the question had not been framed correctly on the quiz and the students were indeed submitting a correct response. Now students were really frustrated with the fact that we could not contact the instructor personally. There is no option for emailing a private mail message or the staff managing the course. So students resort to the Discussion Forums pleading for assistance with a problem such as the situation I had encountered.
Consider for a moment, as a teacher in the traditional classroom, would you simply walk into the classroom and introduce a topic with a brief 10 minute talk, then post a question on the board. After which you would then just walk away from the classroom. Never! Then why is it that so many online instructors believe it is okay to disappear from the virtual classroom? In the case of several Coursera MOOCs, the instructor does not engage in any discussion or one-to-one communication. When there is a situation that requires the teacher to decide the answer, we may need to wait several days or even a week. In the case of the quiz situation I shared above, the answer did not come until well into week 2. Unfortunately, the same thing happened with the Week 2 Quiz . . . which could have been avoided if the instructor had been aware of the situation with Week 1 Quiz.
There is a clear absence of the teacher from the active conversation of the course. I have been in several Coursera.com MOOCs and each seems to have the policy that the instructor posts the weekly lesson, a few recorded lectures, and posts a question in the discussion board (occasionally). In the case of one course, the weekly lesson related board is simply a one sentence . . . "Discuss your questions regarding this week's lesson here."
Teacher presence stresses that the teacher is not only responsible for the design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes, but ensuring the students are comprehending the subject matter and progressing at an acceptable rate. My experience has shown that students prefer to have an exchange with the teacher rather than having to communicate through a staff member.
The teacher should be posting probing questions that require critical thinking rather than a generic discuss here mandate. Without this involvement, the discussion posts are equally generic. The majority of comments are "I agree" and "Thank you for your response" type messages.
Teacher presence requires the active engagement of the instructor as a role model and in order to measure the "pulse" of the class. Whereas, I understand that instructors cannot manage receiving 10,000 to 18,000 personal emails, but why can they not review the discussion posts. I have been active on the boards and I typically review all new posts once a day. It does not require more than an hour to comment on each of the discussion threads.
"Education research has shown that an effective technique for developing problem-solving and critical-thinking skills is to expose students early and often to “ill-defined” problems in their field. An ill-defined problem is one that addresses complex issues and thus cannot easily be described in a concise, complete manner. However educators are also required to have specific objectives and outcomes for students to reach. Often students stray from or miss the path you would like like them to take to reach your objectives and outcomes. How would you facilitate and guide students, during a project, who are “lost or off track” to help them reach the stated course objectives and outcomes?"
My homework for Week 4 is to consider the above. It goes perfectly with what I found from last spring, when organizing photos from a recent trip: a video of students working in groups to answer a complicated math problem.
I interviewed the students as they were busily using and creating representation of items in the problem. The question involved how many given items would be divided equally into 3 baskets. There were many different ways to solve the problem, especially since 2nd graders had limited exposure to formal lessons on division. I interviewed a boy who had flat checked out, and was designing a basket with blocks. It was interesting listening to myself try to get him back on track. His partner had solved the problem without him, and he didn't care. I think if he had seen himself in the video, he would have paid more attention in the next opportunity to shine mathematically.
Others had divided the problem evenly into tasks, having no idea how to mentally solve it without concrete objects. So they were all super busy, but they took so long creating the visuals that they ran out of time.
Another table had self-divided into two groups who were attacking the challenge differently. One GT student quickly mentally calculated and colored in a graphic, then back tracked to show a more hands on explanation. The others used blocks instead of laborious other means of creating manipulatives. They also discussed and paid strict attention to the tally marks. This table was entirely successful.
All of the students in the class were successful in some way. Was the teacher successful? I think the follow through was missing. I wished I had highlighted the successful and unsucessful efforts through showing the video, and asking the students to evaluate and propose suggestions for each group.
What is needed for my future problem-solving and critical-thinking opportunities is time. I need time for the set-up, the exploration of a solution, the solving and explaining, and then the sharing and evaluating with a relevant audience.
My reflections in week 4 are a kind of mix of end of week 3 and week 4. So what did I do? I watched a recording of week 3 round-up and it felt like an “aha” moment – yes, I think I’m finally beginning to get my head round the Community of Inquiry theoretical framework And it’s about time too – I’ve seen/read about it numerous times, but what I found really helpful were all the annoying (!) HOW questions Greg kept on asking: So, how will that look? How can you stimulate learners’ interest?
My to do’s/think abouts/memorable sayings/comparisons from the week 3 round up:
- Ask lots of how/why questions to encourage students to think deeply.
- Give students a problem to think about and as a teacher/lecturer move from telling students to letting them discover/uncover.
- Think about how I could use the following during the online phases of my EFL/ESP classes: case studies, debate, roleplays i.e. each student chooses/is assigned a specific role to play, e.g. using “Hats”; current events to stimulate discussions.
- Community of Inquiry and the Buddhist parable with the blind men and the elephant. By working together, cooperating, forming a community whose goal is inquiry, they’d be better able to overcome their limited perspectives and discover the truth.
- “What you teach teaches you!” (so encourage peer teaching).
- “It (teacher presence) doesn’t just happen – it involves work, careful thought!”
- And this was a great website on how to build an online learning community that I want to explore in the future.
Blog posts I read: my two cents to audio feedback/no paper trail & voice threads/discussion forums: I read most of the blog posts and responded to some– a special thanks to Julio, Tanya, Sara and Jim for their very interesting and thought provoking contributions – 2 comments:
There has been quite a lot of discussion going on about audio feedback not leaving a paper trail – yes, this can be a problem which is why I usually give each student a written feedback sheet with minimal comments (like Tanya) which highlights the main good points/needs work points as well audio feedback. This means that I can also quickly look to see if a student has made any progress when resubmitting work without having to listen to my audio feedback.
Jim & Julio – you both raised a very valid question, namely: “Do discussion forums gain anything from implementing audio threads?” I personally feel they do in my EFL/ESP classes, which is why I include this mode (and not only/always written forum posts). I feel it gives my students valuable speaking practice – German is their mother tongue. It also means I can give them feedback on their pronunciation, e.g. word stress, intonation, connected speech.
Other things that I did: I read some of the suggested articles and listened to a recording of Debbie Morrison’s webinar on how to promote critical thinking in the online classroom, which I very much enjoyed – thank you, Debbie!
Here are my take aways/some of the things that I totally agree with:
- Ask how and why questions – YES!
- Re teacher presence – students kind of know when the teacher is “there”; this maybe makes them try to do better – YES!
- A lot of work goes into creating the best conditions for students to learn in an online course – YES! It shouldn’t be confusing to students (what we ask/want them to do); any technology used should be in the background and NOT what students are trying to get their heads around – YES!
- When moderating online discussions: it’s a balancing act; be careful not to take over – YES!
- Students can be moderators – YES!
- Use rubrics to grade posts – YES!
- Provide feedback at the end of a discussion forum – can be a collective or individual comment.
- Share with the students why you’re having an online discussion – – YES! Shouldn’t just be “busy” work!
- From Greg: “Failure is an indicator for learning” – YES!
Some discussion prompts:
- What would be an example?
- Where did you get this example from?
- What is your main point?
- Can anyone see this from a different perspective?
- Could you explain further?
- What assumptions are made here?
- What are you assuming?
- How can we find out?
Activities mentioned which I really liked and want to try out soon:
- Students introduce themselves and say what their 3 favourite websites are (first modelled by teacher).
- Small group guided discussion (recorded): teacher with 3 or 4 students on a specific topic; other students watch the recording and reflect/discuss the points raised.
I also watched Linda Elder’s recorded webinar and totally agree with what she said about content being the product of critical thinking, and that lecturers tend to teach/lecture “this & that & this & that …” Will have a closer look at www.criticalthinking.org. And Greg’s final comment: Anything worthwhile is not easy; it takes commitment
So what?What I’ve learned this week?/ What now?/What will I do differently in the future? /What I want to remember:
- Listening to various presenters talking about the CoI over and over again was a good reminder that it’s a good idea to revise/revisit content more often.
- Thinking is driven by questions and not answers, so ask more, especially HOW/WHAT?
- Choose triggers for discussion forums carefully: ask more questions; start with a problem; be provocative/controversial.
Yes, we’re more than half way through this MOOC – it feels like a long time probably because it’s been a pretty intensive time and learning experience for me. Thank you, everyone!
Something that could be improved from my perspective (i.e. living in Europe/12 hour time difference) is the times of the webinars. Personally, I’d have preferred anything before 12 noon (Hawaii time zone). Would have meant that I could have joined in more often, which I really enjoyed being able to do on 2 occasions. But it was great that recordings were made – I presume week 4 round up was recorded? I want to watch that too Right, that’s me. I’m probably not going to be around next week, because I’m off to France (poor me!) with 6 girlfriends for a week, and I don’t think we’ll have internet access in the old stone house we’ve rented. But I’m sure that I’ll be able to catch up when I get back. So have a great week 5, one and all! Mahalo!
PROGRAM & CALL FOR PAPERSNovember 15 – 16, 2013 – Ontario, California USA (Los Angeles Metro)
Ontario Airport HotelFormally Ontario Hilton700 N Haven Ave.Ontario, California 91764 USAPhone (909) 481-1743Fax (909) 941-6781
May 2 – 3, 2014 (Los Angeles Metro)August 8-9, 2014 (Los Angeles Metro)
Thank you, Jim, for revisiting so many interesting posts in your blog: http://jimifac.wordpress.com/2013/10/03/tomooc-fishing-in-week-4/
I was especially interested your review of Julio‘s posts. Thanks, Julio, for such thoughtful posts! :
1) I, too, worry about the audio file/voice message not leaving a paper/typed trail. In fact, that’s my biggest concern. However, the way I use the audio files just sort of complements or emphasizes the written feedback the students receive on their essays. If I were a student, I would definitely need the written feedback trail. And, I agree with you that discussion forums with audio files would leave me feeling at loose ends. After Heather’s (?) presentation about allowing students to use a variety of tools (audio, visual, etc.) to introduce themselves, I thought maybe audio would a great option. But now, I definitely pull back from that idea.
2) I’m trying to wrap my mind around your really insightful comment, Julio:
I can’t help but feel that teamwork, like some other strategies (such as webinars), are carryovers from F2F learning contexts. In other words, in classrooms with 20-50 students, small groups or teams are a practical alternative to everyone shouting all at once. Online, the conditions are different, and the purposes for certain strategies that are useful in onground classes may not be as relevant online. Perhaps we ought to reverse engineer the practice of teams: begin with the purposes of teamwork then explore purely online strategies for achieving them. In this way, form follows function.
I was really struck by that last line. I often feel like something genuine is missing in a lot of the group work. Like the tail is wagging the dog. This comment struck me fully this week because, in my f2f developmental writing class, I decided to try something new.
In the past, the course has been designed because of dept guidelines in way that created this pattern: Assign an essay. Teach a mode (eg., compare/contrast) and read sample essays. Give students a few sample topics and let them explore their own (eg., two bosses you can contrast, two social media tools, two places, (yawn!)etc.) Put them into random groups (some ability based, some content/topic based, etc.) to prewrite and peer review. It has always seemed so flat to me. Where ‘s the true motivation to share, inquire, explore, and write vigorously?
Yesterday, I flung open the doors at the beginning of the process, telling them they would have to discover any common interests or experiences they have, group themselves, and then talk about various “ways in” to discovering their specific topics within that group and, ultimately, get around to figuring out how to use compare/contrast as a mode to further their thinking and their writing. So, I asked: Anyone interested in traveling? Anyone have a regret they could write about? Anybody a driven athlete? Anybody think about technology a lot?
Then, I left them to discover each other, to discover what they would possibly want to work on as a group that could generate different perspectives and interesting dialogue.
I hope to see individual essays emerge in each group under the umbrella of one common broad interest and the essays will sort of end up being anthologies that can then be shared with the other groups. But, who knows what they’ll do. They may actually start writing in reaction to each other. That would be great! I always talk to my students about the need to see their college writing as additions to the academic conversation that exists around them (rather than as downloading and regurgitating information), so that’s my hope here — for them to start senses what it feels like to be in an academic community and conversation.
Anyway, the essays may end up looking the same as they always look from semester to semester, but these students need a chance to take control of their group-making and discussion and become more “alive.” So, there you have it: That’s why Julio’s comment about the form following function really struck me. I hope that makes some sort of sense! Hard to describe, but it feels like a significant shift in empowering the students to create group work — rather than be assigned to groups — and to see it as theirs and as meaningful exchange.
Now, I have to think about what this means for my online writing classes! Hmmm…
Tanya, in Week 3 catch-up/ thank you’s & Techie Questions about Voice Messages (10/3/13), tested Veronica’s ideas re audio feedback on student papers/projects. She tried TurnItIn’s “new voice message tool,” “Adobe Pro’s voice embed tool,” and ScreenCastOMatic. Re the last, she says, “I’ve tried both ScreenCastOMatic options of QuickTimePlayer and WindowsMedia MP4s and AVI files. I’m also experimenting to find out if Laulima/Sakai limits the size of the attachment sent via Messages. I think it does.”
Thanks, Tanya, for doing this! It saves me and others who are interested a lot of time and effort. My feelings re audio in this role is torn. On the one hand, I realize it does give a more human “face” to comments, but I’m not totally convinced that text doesn’t do the same, though in a different way via tone, persona, etc. On the other hand, part of the review process is to create a log of past performances to guide future growth and to measure growth, and for this, text is very efficient. The result is a performance continuum (or record) rather than isolated bits of feedback. I’d think audio comments, even if only a few minutes long, might take time to review — for the teacher as well as students. For example, I can scan a text transcript quickly for info I need, but searching a video or recording is a hassle. Thus, even if the technical issues could be worked out, audio recordings may not be worth the extra effort they require. When the purpose is to convey info on problems and strengths in a student’s paper, perhaps the best medium is the one that’s quickest, easiest, and most effective. However, this decision may be a matter of teacher preference, and buy-in may be a critical factor in student success.
Sara, in Week 4 Activity Post — 10/3/13, says, “I find that students don’t know how to think critically.” In the context of her post, I understand where she’s coming from. However, I don’t think she means that “students don’t know how to think critically.” Of course they do — but maybe not in the areas and in the ways that we deem important in our fields of study. The fact is, the vast majority of human beings are excellent critical thinkers. The key, for teachers, is to tap into that natural ability by helping students connect it to the teacher’s topics. Students may need to learn new labels for what they already do, and they may need to learn how to refine their thinking, but we shouldn’t forget that teaching is often reminding students about what they already know and showing them how to transfer prior learning to newer contexts. In short, ignorance is relative.
Sara mentions a problem in Dr. Elder’s session: “I felt like most of [the] session was spent explaining what critical thinking was. I was looking for specific examples about how to implement it into a training or class and how to engage student in that thinking.” Most teachers are familiar with critical thinking principles in F2F settings, so their interest is in implementation in online contexts. She leaves us with a comment that I’d like to echo: “I would still like to know what others do besides asking probing questions to encourage critical thinking in their students. I know there must be more strategies out there that would reach out to a more varied audience of learners and I would love to hear about them.”
Ida Brandao, in “MOOC How to Teach Online” (9/28/13), says, “I must confess that I have great difficulty to follow synchronous communication, for professional reasons, for reasons that one forgets the timings. So, most of the synchronous events I watch as recorded sessions.” I’m like Ida. While I’m watching the linear real-time progression slowly unravel, I keep wondering, Couldn’t this have been provided in text, for me to review at my own leisure, at my own pace, in my own way? Then again, I may be asking all the wrong questions.
Julio C. Castro, in “Suggested Reflections (week 3)” (10/2/13), says, “It is a tricky situation when you have to put together teams of students who have not met before in a on-site course. But to do it in an online class, it is even more difficult. My take on this is that, even though many instructors practice this, the students have to figure out themselves how to pair up, the instructor only needs to create the right environment.” I agree that teamwork in an online class is “even more difficult.” I can’t help but feel that teamwork, like some other strategies (such as webinars), are carryovers from F2F learning contexts. In other words, in classrooms with 20-50 students, small groups or teams are a practical alternative to everyone shouting all at once. Online, the conditions are different, and the purposes for certain strategies that are useful in onground classes may not be as relevant online. Perhaps we ought to reverse engineer the practice of teams: begin with the purposes of teamwork then explore purely online strategies for achieving them. In this way, form follows function.
Julio, in “Activity Reflection (week 3)” (10/1/13), says, “It got me curious because I thought that maybe this is just some kind of resistance to the use of new technology or maybe there is indeed no foundation on the usefulness of this system in online learning. So, I think I have found a problem I liked to explore possible solutions to, that has really excited me.” Good point, Julio. My guess is that audio is simply not as efficient as text in forums. In discussion forums using text, we have a visual sense of the parts and the whole. If all were in audio, we’d lose that sense of location and finding and tracking individual posts would be baffling. Still, I applaud your spirit of inquiry and encourage your exploration.
Julio says, “I guess the big questions is whether discussion forums gain anything from implementing audio threads, here at UF there is no guidelines on how students use the tool, I think this time I will spend some effort on creating these guides to help students create a truly engaging community through voice and text.” I’d begin with this big question, too: Do “discussion forums gain anything from implementing audio threads”?
Leanne Riseley, in “Making Sense of Connecting with Learners and Creating Community” (10/1/13), says, “I created a new page with all of the technologies we use in the course on a single page. This page has video tutorials, resources, and links to tech support. In the past, I had the technology listed in my course syllabus and throughout the course modules, but now it is all in one place.” I slowly came to this “solution,” too. I use WordPress blogs for course info and developed a separate blog called “course resources,” a central location for info that’s repeated in all the separate course blogs. Course maintenance and info flow has become much more efficient.
Leanne says, “I’ve used teams in my online course for the last four years, constantly reviewing and revising the process each semester. A small change that I will be making – I have always named my teams 1, 2, 3, etc. and encouraged the teams to pick their own names.” Please see my comment, above, to Julio re teams.
Example 6: Wondering what you should do for the participation portion of our class?
What do I mean by a substantive post?
The following are some ideas to set the stage for substantive participation for the development of your critical thinking skills:
- Ensure that the posting contributes to the overall discussion thread that is being developed. Your response must contain some reference back to the original discussion question. Stay on track by always referring back to that original discussion question.
- Try to use your posting to add value to the discussion. This is more effective than simply responding to meet a requirement.
- Check to see that the posting expands on the main theme (in the discussion question, or assignment posting).
- Make sure your posting is at least 75-150 words.
Other Ideas for Participation
- Share a related experience.
- Comment on others’ experiences.
- Ask students questions about their ideas/experiences.
- Consider an idea being discussed, and offer a different perspective on it.
- Describe an interesting idea from the week’s reading, and explain what insights you gained from it.
- Ask the group a question about the week’s reading.
- Disagree (respectfully, of course) with a point that someone else has made.
- Discuss a related issue on which you would like some feedback.
- Describe how you have applied the recent course concepts to your personal/professional life.
- Share another resource you have used as you explored the course topics.
I thought I’d share this NY Times article about how and why college students do not use e-mail: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/29/fashion/technology-and-the-college-generation.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Interesting — they feel it’s antiquated! Aaagh! I AM old! I take to heart the additional comment in the article that some students who might consider using e-mail shy away from it because they worry about the etiquette (eg., what do I put in the subject line? how do I address my instructor? etc.) . This made me think I’ll add a little lesson about that at the beginning of each semester. The authors go on to say how many of us veteran e-mail users do not composing effective messages, so how can we expect our students to use this tool effectively?
- First, I want to thank the facilitators for a great Week 3. I found all of the materials really thought-provoking and informative. I will have to revisit them after this busy semester! I am inspired to share key ideas with my online colleagues here at the college.
- Discussion Questions:
- I thought a lot about the social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence concepts. I really like the idea of exploring how students are present in these three ways. How can I encourage more student-student teaching and problem-solving. I also appreciated the reminder that the social presence is critical. I am very aware of needing to create a safe place for my students and now I also want to encourage the interpersonal connections between students more. Simple things like having them post their questions to the class can help. I do want them to become greater resources for each other.
I also liked Heather Farmakis’s take on introducing herself to her classes. http://facultyecommons.org/building-rapport-establishing-relationships-in-online-courses/ I’d love to do something like this online, and I like the idea of telling students about our own educational journeys. When I share parts of my experience as a student, they are all ears.
I reflected on the “sense of puzzlement> info exchange> through “applying new ideas” quite a bit and realized that sense of puzzlement is so quickly passed over at times. Students need to puzzle, resist puzzling, and don’t really realize that’s what’s happening. Instead they just feel uncomfortable and fearful. I’d like to highlight this sequence for them and help them understand, “It’s all good!, ” but if they get stuck there in the puzzlement and it’s not generating the next steps of learning, they have to reach out for help.
- As students posted their first round of responses to a reading this week in a discussion forum, I went in and highlighted their salient points and I commented on each with a greater focus on asking them follow-up questions and directing them to other students’ posts (eg., “Oh, that sounds a lot like what Jenny said. Is it?” or “This goes along with what Mitchell wrote in a way? What do you think?” I noticed several student went back in and responded to each other this time… It’s building! Also, on the announcements home page of the course, I wrote a little blurb with bullets like: “Please go back to the Discussion forum where : ~ Jenny asked for help with her thesis. ~ Mitchell made a really interesting point about xyz ~ Pam gave Alice a great pat on the back. etc. Gee, it’d be fun to move over to students doing this sort prompting!
And, I added a thought-provoking image to my home page with some questions to prompt their thinking. I change it up weekly or every other week, but now, I just have to figure out if it’s too much to ask them to respond to such images as well or to give them a place where they can voluntarily discuss it. I’m finding anything voluntary doesn’t get attention. Sometimes, enough is enough. Students are so busy! Just putting the image and question up there for now may be just fine.
We talked about how can you really begin to id yourself as a reader? Make it part of your social identity. They’re responding to it well. The students are sharing all sorts of interests and reading experiences. This week I threw it out to them: “How do you want to continue with this blogging experiment? How can we sustain your interest and expand your interactions?” This is new to me… I want this to become their baby; we’ll see if we can make it happen.