This is the second part of a two-part blog post.

During the Open Education Conference, I attended “Scaling up OER Faculty Development from a Campus to a System” presented by an Instructional Developer and Psychology Faculty from Minnesota State. Based on what I learned from that presentation and my own experience, I meshed the ideas and came up with the following visual representation of OER Learning Pathways. I am sharing it with you, the UHCC campus leads, in the hopes that it will be helpful in the planning of your OER campus initiatives.

First, I do not believe there is a single OER pathway in which an instructor goes along a clearly defined path and out she pops ready to adopt OER. Wouldn’t that be wonderful? Sadly, OER Land does not exist. Instead, I believe OER is best implemented using a multi-path approach.

Process - From left to right a figure of a stick man on the left, then arrow pointing toward a green man with an OER label

Step 1: Gauge how much time your campus personnel can dedicate to an OER initiative.

Step 2: Consider implementing one path immediately and gradually add paths as your OER initiative grows.

The diagram below shows how a campus might create OER Learning Pathways based on the resources that can be dedicated to the OER Initiative. Depending on the instructor’s subject, level of commitment, and time availability, the instructor can select the path that best fits his/her needs.

Process showing a figure of a man on the left with a four directional arrow for textbook review, learning circles, course design, and authoring. The first two show it requires less campus resources and minimal instructor commitment. The second two show more campus resources and higher instructor commitment

Textbook Review

The University of Hawaii Community Colleges is a member of the Open Textbook Network (OTN). In March 2018, at the HSSI Post Institute, OTN provided a train-the-trainer session in which representatives from all the UHCC campuses attended. The goal of the training was to equip participants with the resources and skills to conduct an Open Textbook Review workshop at their respective campuses.

The Textbook Review path uses the OTN model in which a “trainer” conducts an Open Textbook Review workshop on their campus. This involves recruiting instructors new to OER to attend a one hour workshop. During the workshop, participants are introduced to OER, learn about the Open Textbook Library, search the OTN Library for a textbook in their subject area, and learn how to do a textbook review. Once a participant completes the workshop and a textbook review, he/she is awarded $200. It is a great way to introduce OER to instructors and encourage them to review an existing open textbook.

Timeframe: 1 hour + textbook review time (varies)

Learning Circles

A learning circle is a highly interactive, participatory structure for organizing professional learning. In this model, faculty interested in OER meet regularly and learn from each other. The group is organized and facilitated by a trained facilitator. The goal is to build, share, and express knowledge through a process of open dialogue and deep reflection around issues or problems with a focus on a shared outcome. This path is good for building OER awareness and interest.

Timeframe: Periodic meetings over a semester

Course Design

Integrating OER course resources is best approached as a course redesign which requires instructional design and librarian support. Instructors who choose the course design path are often those who teach subjects that 1) do not have an open textbook, 2) find OER course materials from multiple sources that need to be mashed up, or 3) find some OER course materials and want to add their own created materials. The process starts with the Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs), aligning the activities and assessments with the SLOs, and finding/creating OER course materials that support the activities and assessments. This path often requires a 1-1 instructional designer to faculty support. It also requires librarian support in searching for resources, correctly attributing OER materials, and properly citing copyright materials.

Timeframe: 1 semester to 1 year


Authoring is the creation of an OER textbook or course resources for an entire course. This path is the most time and labor intensive for the instructor and librarian often requiring external campus resources, which makes it the least traveled path. The instructor is responsible for creating most of their own material. The librarian performs the resource searching and licensing (as noted in the Course Design path). External campus resources include copy editing, graphics creation, textbook layout, and other creative and technical support services. This is sometimes the only path for higher-level courses and some specialized fields.

Timeframe: several years

While the four pathways are not completely clear-cut and distinct, my hope is this will serve as a general guide for the UHCC campus leads as you continue the OER initiative on your respective campuses.

In the next month, we will contact you to find out how we can best help you. You should already know the campus resources available to dedicate to OER. Next, consider using one of the pathways this semester and another next semester. As the UHCC OER project leads, we are offering our help. We will be dividing the campuses so you have a single point-of-contact to request support when you need it.



Cloud” by Droid Panic is licensed Creative Commons

Blue stick man” by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay is licensed CC0 Public Domain | Recolored

Schwartz, D. (2017, July 5). The Four Ways Board Appointments are Made. Retrieved December 6, 2018, from Four Arrows Image

Thanks, Wayde for editing this long post!

This is the first part of a two-part blog post.

In October, Sunny Pai, Wayde Oshiro, and I presented “Putting OER into Practice Through a Continuum of Professional Development” at the Open Education 2018 Conference held in Niagara Falls, NY.

Once our presentation proposal was accepted, the pressure was on to come up with something insightful and innovative, or at the very least, helpful! We chose to examine the OER professional development (PD) at Leeward CC and Kapiolani CC, identifying the elements for successful PD, then analyzing it through the lens of adoption models such as Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations Model and the Technology Adoption Model.

I will simplify what we presented and concentrate on what I am most familiar with - professional development or professional learning as I prefer to call it. Over the last three years, both campuses have offered a variety of OER professional learning opportunities for instructors. These ranged from a 1-hour informational session to a 5-day intensive hands-on, in-person workshop.

After offering different OER professional learning options, we saw it resulted in varying degrees of OER implementation. This led us to the question: What are the essential elements necessary in professional learning to guide faculty through the process of OER awareness and to then make a strong commitment to adopting and creating OER?

Looking back on our experiences, we identified what we think are the essential elements for successful professional learning for OER:

  1. Time
  2. Safe Environment
  3. Variety of Activities
  4. Social Connections
  5. Focused Attention
  6. Open Mindset
  7. Clear Why


As we took a step back and reflected on the different OER professional learning offered at our campuses, the one element that leaped out as being most critical to successful OER adoption was time. Instructors need to have enough time to process through their questions about OER. One of the first activities at Leeward’s 5-day workshop is to ask each participant to share his/her questions and concerns with OER. Throughout the week, some of the questions were answered, while others were not. While there may not have been answers to all the questions, it was an important part of the process for facilitators to recognize and validate the concerns participants raised. Participants needed time to work through their concerns, to weigh the usefulness of incorporating OER in their course, and to shift their attitude (if needed) before taking the first steps to fully commit to using OER.

Safe Environment & Variety of Activities

Creating a safe environment for participants with a variety of activities went hand-in-hand with providing time to work through the OER adoption process. As educators, we all know how important it is to create a safe environment for our students to learn. Participants in the OER workshop series were no different. When designing it, I intentionally created a safe environment for instructors to openly express their concerns, engage in deep discussions with their colleagues, and gradually bring the entire group to a shared mindset in which OER  adoption is a possibility. As facilitators, we did not rush through content, nor did we quickly jump from one topic to another. Instead, we designed a variety of hands-on small group activities and discussions that encouraged learning and deep reflection. It was through the sharing and processing as a group that we saw connections being made and a community beginning to develop.  

Social Connections

We encouraged the building of social connections among participants in one-on-one and small group conversations during “social time”. We found participants talked about their personal life, hobbies, travel, teaching, respective campuses, and many other areas. As we all know, living in Hawaii, food helps to encourage these social connections, so we were sure to feed both the body as well as the mind. It is important to recognize that “hanging out” time is productive and necessary to building community.

Focused Attention

Another essential element was focused attention. While it is not always possible to offer PD when instructors are not teaching, we found the most effective PD occurred during the summer, when instructors have the time to focus their undivided attention on one thing only and that was OER.

Open Mindset

PD on our campuses is voluntary so it is not surprising that individuals that participate nearly always have an open mindset. Participants with an open mindset are most willing to learn about and fully commit to OER.

Clear Why

Finally, it is important to clearly articulate the “why”  Why is OER important for students as well as for instructors. It is important to give instructors the opportunity to explore why OER is important to them so it can be deeply integrated into their own beliefs and teaching philosophy.

Providing time, creating a safe environment, using a variety of activities, encouraging social connections, conducting professional learning when participants can focus, encouraging open mindset individuals to participate, and articulating the “why” are all elements I have found produce the best OER PD results. While it isn’t essential for all elements to be present for quality PD to occur, incorporating as many of these elements as possible will spur a deeper, more profound commitment to the ideals on which OER is built.

In collaboration with the instructional designers I work with, and through my own personal experience, I have found these elements can be applied to other topics that also call for transformational change in the teaching and learning process.

Thanks, Wayde for editing this long post!

The following post is written by Cara Chang, Leeward CC English Instructor.

Cara ChangThis semester (Fall 2018) is my first semester teaching and piloting a new OER textbook for English 209: Business Writing.  Prior to teaching the class, I found two possible OER textbooks for my class on OER Commons.  The first textbook was Business Writing by Lumen Learning and the second textbook was Business Communication for Success from Open Textbook Library. I found both books to have important information; the Business Writingtextbook focused more on writing skills and concepts while the Business Communication for Success text focused more on oral communication. I also noticed that there was some overlap in the content in both textbooks; in fact, some of the chapters in both textbooks were exactly the same.  As I started thinking about what textbook I wanted my students to use, it became apparent that both textbooks had something to offer. Though most of the SLOs in the course focused on writing skills, one of ENG 209’s SLOs mentioned delivering an oral report, which my students would be doing for their final assignment.  Therefore, I figured it would be helpful for my students to have access to material on both written and oral communication skills.

In April and May of 2018, I attended a workshop led by UH OER Technologist, Billy Meinke, who shared about Pressbooks, which is a simple e-book production software.  He shared an example of a UH Mānoa Nutrition textbook, which had used Pressbooks, and I really liked the appearance, layout, and clean look of the textbook. I also liked how compatible and easily accessible the textbook was on my phone since I knew that would mean that students could also easily access the textbook.  I also learned that some OER materials could be easily imported into Pressbooks, which would mean that I would not necessarily need to create material from scratch.

I spent July and August creating the textbook for the business writing class.  After planning the course schedule and looking through the two OER textbooks, I decided what information I wanted to include and exclude.  I ended up keeping information from both books and combining both textbooks into one textbook while organizing the information in an easy to understand way.  I was able to do this quite easily by importing one textbook into Pressbooks, but I wasn’t able to do this for the other textbook, which I ended up copying, pasting, and organizing in a cohesive manner.  The book starts with general content surrounding communication, covers the writing process and types of business writing, narrows down to specific writing rules and conventions, and concludes with presentations.  Lastly, I made a cover page for my textbook and named the textbook Business Writing for Success, which is a combination of both of the textbook titles.

Business Writing for Success Fall 2018 Edition

Overall, I liked working with Pressbooks.  It seemed fairly easy to use, and the layout was visually appealing and organized.  Furthermore, it seemed to be easily accessible for my students. When I finished creating the textbook, I included the textbook as an external website link in Laulima.  My students seem to like the textbook. They like that they don’t have to pay for a textbook and that all of the course materials are located in Laulima. To be honest, I’m not sure they really utilized the textbook as much as I hoped.  However, they did have group presentations on how to give presentations where each group was required to read and present on an assigned chapter in the book. I plan to have them take a survey regarding the textbook at the end of the semester, so I know how to better improve it.

While teaching the course and using the book for the first time, I came to realize how I would like to revise the textbook to make it better.  As I progressed through the semester, I realized that there was not enough business writing examples for my students. I ended up creating examples for my students that we would view, discuss, and critique in class.  Furthermore, I also realized that there are possible chapters I would like to add in the textbook. For example, I had my business writing students create a website and blog in class, and I needed to find external websites for students to read to assist them in this process.  Finally, there is room for creating and curating more lectures/videos for students who wish for supplemental materials.

In conclusion, I learned a lot from creating an OER textbook using Pressbooks.  It was user friendly and allowed enough customization for my needs. I would definitely consider utilizing Pressbooks to create another OER textbook in the future if I need to, and I invite other faculty members to participate in this valuable experience, as well.

24th Annual

TCC Worldwide Online Conference

April 16-18, 2019
Sustainable Learning, Accessible Technologies, & Diverse Contexts
Submission deadline: December 21, 2018



Call for Proposals

Please consider submitting a paper or a general session proposal on OER related to learning, design, and technology such as e-learning, learning communities, digital literacy, social media, online privacy, mobile and emerging technologies, gamification, faculty and staff support, and professional development.

Suggested TOPICS & FULL Details



Participation in this event is entirely online. All sessions will be delivered online in real-time. Sessions will also be recorded for later viewing.

More Info

Bert Kimura <> or Curtis Ho <>

TCC Hawaii, LearningTimes, & the Learning Design and Technology Department, College of Education, UH-Manoa collaborate to produce this event. Numerous volunteer faculty and staff worldwide provide additional support.

The following post is written by Kelsie Aguilera, Leeward CC OER Creation Award Winner for 2018

Kelsie Doing Work

Last semester, I was honored (and thrilled!) to receive the Leeward OER Creation Award (LOERCA). The goal of the LOERCA is to develop original OER materials where none exists or revise and remix existing OER with the addition of original content. I highly recommend applying for one of the many Leeward CC OER Award programs when the application periods open up again this coming spring semester; they are a great way to stay motivated and focused while transitioning to or developing OER.

I was graciously awarded the LOERCA in recognition of the following project I am working on: I, along with a team of three other managing editors, am developing a high-quality, open access biological anthropology textbook with 100% original written content that will be written and peer-reviewed by experts in the field—a project that will be the first of its kind and slated to be ready for use in Fall 2019. This edited book will be available free of charge under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License and housed on a website administered by the Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges (SACC), a professional anthropology organization that is part of the American Anthropological Association. In addition, this edited book can be made available on the University of Hawaii Open Educational Resources (OER) Repository and can be uploaded to UH Pressbooks. We finally decided on a title for our book, Explorations: An Open Invitation to Biological Anthropology.

The idea for this projected originated at the 2017 SACC conference in Boise, Idaho. On the bus to an archaeological site, I was chatting with an anthropologist from the California State University system about how great it would be if there were an OER textbook for biological anthropology. After the conference, when we got back home to our respective institutions, rather than just ignore our big idea, we decided to take action and make this textbook a reality. It is so exciting to be where we are now with the project. Over 25 expert authors have submitted chapters for our book, some of whom are big names in anthropology. And dozens more are supporting us as reviewers, illustrators, or designers. We are also fortunate that money will not be a problem for our project; we were quickly awarded the first grant we applied for, a $25,000 Innovation Grant from Minnesota State. If you decide to take on an OER project, no matter at what scale, you might be surprised at the tremendous support you will receive from Leeward CC and your larger communities. For example, receiving the LOERCA was unexpected but much appreciated. As a managing editor and author of this textbook, the Leeward CC OER Award program is supporting the countless hours I have put in to make this textbook for our students.

Although the cost savings to students is obvious, I want to mention another important contribution that our project will make. In the field of biological anthropology, there are less than a handful of “classic” introductory biological anthropology textbooks, some of which are now in their double-digit edition. While I certainly received a solid education as an undergraduate via one of these “classic” textbooks, in what ways are we limiting the voices that teach by privileging the voices of a select few? How many generations of anthropology students have been taught by the same voices with the same perspectives? Our textbook challenges this model by providing our students with a fresh multiplicity of voices, many of which have been traditionally underrepresented in biological anthropology textbooks. OER democratizes not only who gets to learn but also who gets to teach.  
Lastly, a note of encouragement for those who are considering transitioning to or developing OER. The first step is always the most daunting but you don’t have to take that first step alone! There are so many resources at Leeward to assist you along the way. Don’t be shy in reaching out to the OER Resources on your campus!

Introduction to BusinessBusiness EthicsThere are two new business books available from  OpenStax! Introduction to Business and Business Ethics books have just been published! Later this year, OpenStax will be adding faculty ancillaries to the website which will include PowerPoint slides and test banks.  Interested faculty can sign-up to be pre-approved to get the instructor resources.

You may have seen article "New Resource Offers Ideas for Advocating OER Adoption" in Campus Technology.

Lumen Learning has created an online resource to help proponents of open educational resources make the case for OER use on campus.

The OER Champion Playbook offers a collection of ideas, tips and tools for building effective OER initiatives.

For instance, ideas within the "Making the Case for OER" section include creating an OER initiative website, developing a persuasive elevator pitch, organizing an OER summit, setting up an OER sandbox and engaging student leadership. 

In keeping with the OER movement, there is a "Share Your Ideas" link which allows you to submit their own additions or improvements to any section of the Playbook.

We hope this will help you and others on your campus to continue advocating for OER! Please share your ideas back with us!

OER Open Educational ResourcesButte College is hosting a series of free “Introduction to OER” Webinars.  It is a 4-part series that is focused on orienting faculty who are new to OER.

The workshops are Fridays from 9 AM – 11 AM HST Time (Note: 11/9 and 12/14 are 10 AM - 12 PM due to daylight savings time).  The login for the webinars is:

Dates and tentative Topics:

9/28 – Introduction to OER and Open Access

10/12 –Licensing and Search Strategies

11/9 – Universal Design and Accessibility

12/14 – Curation using Pressbooks and Open Pedagogy

More information is found on the Intro to OER Course Website:

Registration is not necessary. Webinars are free. Please feel free to share with your colleagues.

As we move forward with tracking courses that have no course materials costs, colleges are asked to start reporting on Textbook Cost: $0 data.  The report should include, by fall semester, spring semester, and summer:

  1. Count of Textbook Cost: $0 sections (CRNs)
  2. Percentage of all CRNs for that semester or summer offered Textbook Cost: $0 (the number of TC$0 classes divided by total number of classes for that semester or summer)
  3. Count of students enrolled in "Textbook Cost: $0" classes
  4. Count of "Textbook Cost: $0" unique subjects taught
  5. Count of "Textbook Cost: $0" unique instructors teaching

Below are a few guidelines on how to develop a report for "Textbook Cost: $0".

  1. After the Last Day to Drop Courses Without a 'W' (e.g.: Sept 11, 2018), review your class availability listing and identify all "Textbook Cost: $0" classes. You can do this yourself or your institutional research office may be able to help. If you have to do this yourself,
    1. Using Acrobat Pro, create a PDF of all of your campus's classes using the UH class availability website.
    2. Using Acrobat, do a text search for "$0" to find each class and make a record of that class in a spreadsheet.
    3. Include CRN, subject, and instructor last name.
  2. Calculate cost savings. Using the list of classes listed as TC$0
    1. For each TC$0 course, assign a textbook cost for what it would have cost a student. Ways to get that price:
      1. Ask the bookstore for the cost of the textbook in previous semesters
      2. Check bookstore cost listings from previous years
      3. Use textbook cost data for the same course from another UH campus
      4. Ask faculty
      5. If none of the above work, use a nationally accepted "average" cost, $100.00.
    2. On or after the "Last Day to Withdraw without 'W' Grade", obtain enrollment data from STAR or your friendly campus data person by downloading the STAR enrollment data for all classes. Use this data to also count what the total number of classes were for that semester.
    3. Using enrollment data for each TC$0 class and the textbook cost, calculate the savings for that class.
    4. Add the total savings for all classes to get total cost savings.
    5. Special case: Honolulu CC has their IR person and their bookstore person put the data together into a spreadsheet that itemizes the information by CRN.
    6. Do this for each semester and for summer sessions. The academic year starts August 1, so report data for August 1 through July 31.

Aloha UHCC OER Leads,

In case you missed it, here are a few training options for you and your faculty. All are free.

In-person OER Training on UH Manoa Campus

Online OER Training by OpenStax

Topics include:

  1. What is OER?
  2. What is OpenStax?
  3. Are OpenStax books high quality and are they really free? (spoiler alert: yes)
  4. How can my students and I access the books?
  5. Do you have other teaching resources?
  6. What about homework and courseware?

Tuesday, September 4 at 6 a.m. HST and Monday, September 17 at 9 a.m. HST.

Registration for Tuesday, September 4

Registration for Monday, September 17